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[雙語文摘] 隆胸:第一個50年

It is half a century since silicone breast enlargement became available一rcd it is still the most popular cosmetic-surgery' procedure' in the US and the UK What does this tell us about the society we live in?

 硅膠隆胸已經存在了半個世紀,如今仍然是美國和英國最受歡迎的整形手術.這說明我們生活在一個怎樣的社會?

 

 It was in 1962 that Timmie Jean Lindsey was offered a solution to a non-existent problem. A factory worker from Texas, she had married at 15, had six children, divorced in her mid-20s, and *taken up with a man who encouraged her to have a vine tattooed6 on her cleavage'. Roses tumbled across her breasts. When the relationship faltered, Lindsey decided she wanted the tattoos removed. "I was ashamed," she says, "and I needed them taken off" Her low-paid work made her eligible for treatment at a charity hospital, where she was told the tattoo could be removed through dermabrasion. And the doctors had another proposal. Had she ever thought about breast implants?

那是1962年,有人就一個并不存在的問題向蒂米·瓊·林賽提供了一種解決方案。林賽當時在得克薩斯州一家工廠當工人。她巧歲結婚,生了6個孩子,二十五六歲離婚,交往了一個慫恿她在乳溝處紋上藤蔓的男人。玫瑰花她的胸部搖曳。兩人關系破裂后,林賽決定要把文身洗掉。“我感到羞恥,”她說,“我需要把它們弄掉。”她薪水很低,因此有資格在一家慈善醫院接受治療。在那里,她被告知可以用皮膚削磨術去除文身。醫生們還有另一個提議。她是否想過植人隆胸?

 

Lindsey had not. She'd never felt self-conscious about her breasts一and even if she had, the options at that time were primitive and problematic, involving substances injected directly into women's chests, or implants made of sponge. "The only person I'd ever talked to about breast implants was my cousin," says Lindsey, "who had had some kind of surgery. She said: `Sometimes I wake up and my breast has moved to another part of my body,' and I thought: `My God. I never want that.' It wasn't long after she and I talked that I came into contact with these doctors."

 

                

林賽沒想過這個。她從未對自己的乳房感到不自在。就算感到過不自在,當時的選項也簡單粗糙,而且很成問題,需要把一些物質直接注射進女性的胸部,甚至植人海綿制成的假體。“我只跟表妹一個人談起過隆胸的事兒,”林賽說,“她做過某種手術。她說:‘有時候我醒來后發現,我的乳房竟然跑到身體另一個地方去了。’我當時想:‘天啊。我可不想那樣。’她和我說過這件事不久,我就接觸到這些大夫。”

 

 The team was led by Dr Thomas Cronin, who had been developing the world's first silicone breast implants. Thomas Biggs, then 29, and a surgical resident" under Cronin, says the idea came about when one of his colleagues, Frank Gerow, went to the blood bank. "They'd stopped putting liquids in glass bottles, and begun putting them into plastic bags," says Biggs, "and he was walking in the hall with this bag of blood, and felt that it had the softness of a breast."Around the same time, Cronin travelled "to New Orleans to a *plastic surgery meeting and encountered a former resident of his. This fellow told him there was a company who had a new product which was interesting because it had very little body reaction, and could be made into a variety of thicknesses, a variety of viscosities, all the way from liquid to solid. If you can make a solid, you can make a bag一and if you can make a liquid, you can make something that goes in it."

這個醫療團隊由托馬斯·克羅寧博士負責,他一直在研制世界上第一種隆胸用的硅膠植人體。當時29歲的托馬斯·比格斯是克羅寧帶的一名住院外科實習醫師,他說,這種想法是他的同事弗蘭克·杰羅去血站時想到的。比格斯說:“人們已經不再把液體放在玻璃瓶里,而開始使用塑料袋,他當時拿著這么一袋血在大廳里走,覺得它有乳房一樣柔軟的觸感。”大概在同一時間,克羅寧前往“新奧爾良參加一次整形手術會議,遇見了過去一個跟他實習的醫師。這個人告訴他,某家公司有一種新產品,這種新產品引人關注,因為它對身體引起的反應極小,而且可以制成各種密度,各種粘度,從液體直到固體。如果你能做出固體,你就可以做個袋子;如果你能做出液體,你就可以把它放進袋子里”。

 

 Cronin had the idea for a breast implant. A prototype was created, and implanted into a dog called Esmeralda. "That worked OK," says Biggs, "and so then they got to Timmie Lindsey." She's 80 today, still living in Texas, working night shifts in a care home, and those first, experimental globes remain in her chest.

克羅寧想到植人式隆胸。他們做出一個原型,植人一只名叫埃斯梅拉爾達的狗的體內。比格斯說:“效果不錯,于是他們去找蒂米·林賽。”她如今已經80歲了,仍然住在得克薩斯,在一家養老院值夜班。那兩個最初的試驗性的球體仍然在她胸部。

 

 The 50-year history of breast implants had begun, a history of controversy and success. What no one knew back then was just how phenomenally" popular breast augmentation's surgery would become一the last available figures from the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery show it was the most popular form of cosmetic surgery in the US in 2010, with 318,123 augmentations performed. It is also the most popular cosmetic operation in the UK. While there are no overall figures for cosmetic surgery here, those collected by the British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons (BAAPS), which represent around a third of the market, show 9,418 women had breast augmentation in 2010, a rise of more than 10% from the previous year.

植人式隆胸半個世紀的歷史從此開始:這是一段爭議的歷史,也是一段成功的歷史。當時沒有人知道,隆胸手術日后會變得多么受人歡迎。美國美容整形外科學會可以查到的最新數字顯示,2010年,這是美國最受歡迎的整形手術,一共實施了318123例。隆胸也是英國最受歡迎的整形手術。雖然這里沒有整體數字,但英國美容整形外科醫師協會收集的數字(占市場份額的1/3)顯示,2010年有9418位女性隆胸,比前一年增長10%以上。

 

It's estimated between 5 and 10 million womem worldwide have had the surgery, many for cosmetic reasons, and a significant proportion for reconstruction following a mastectomy, or for transsexual people transitioning from male to female. But concern around them has never abated, with the most recent row being one of the most disturbing, and vexed. In 2010, after concerns about ruptures in implants made by French company Poly Implant Prosthesis(PIP), it emerged the company had been filling them not with the medical-grade silicone that had won them a CE mark, and the right to sell them in Europe一but industrial-grade silicone, otherwise used to make mattresses. In December last year it was reported that the faulty implants had been tentatively linked to cancer in France. Eight women whose PIP implants had failed had had the disease, including one who suffered a rare form of lymphoma28 and died. Street protests began in France, the French state health service said it would pay to remove the implants, and similar calls began here.

據估計,全世界有500萬至1000萬女性做過這種手術,很多人是為美容,也有相當一部分是在乳房切除術以后整形修復,或者是變性人從男性變成女性。但對這類手術的擔憂從未消減,而最近發生的糾紛則是最令人不安和惱火的糾紛之一。2010年,法國聚植人修復體公司(簡稱PIP)生產的假體發生破裂引發擔憂后,人們發現,這家公司給患者植人的不是使他們獲得CE認證(一種安全認證標志,被視為制造商打開并進人歐洲市場的護照—譯注)并有權在歐洲銷售的醫療用硅膠,而是原本用來制造床墊的工業級硅膠。去年12月有報道稱,在法國,這種有問題的假體據推測與癌癥有關。8名PIP假體出問題的女性患上癌癥,其中一人患上罕見的淋巴癌后死亡。法國開始出現街頭抗議,法國衛生部門說將負責支付摘除這種假體的費用,英國也出現類似的呼吁。

 

Why do women risk it? Of all the areas of the body that could be modified, or augmented, why are the breasts the focus of such an enormous proportion of cosmetic surgeries? As the PIP story has unfolded, some have commented that they can understand why mastectomy patients might want the operation, but not women who have it solely for cosmetic reasons. This seems slightly disingenuous. Because if it is, of course, understandable that someone might want a breast that had been removed to be reconstructed, it's surely not such an enormous leap'0 to imagine why someone with very small breasts might want the operation too. Still, the numbers remain astonishing, a testament to discomfort and self-loathing", to a culture that has come to see bodies一especially women's bodies一as endlessly open to modification. The fact that the rise of breast implant surgery has taken place *in tandem with the rise of second-wave feminism, only makes this more perplexing.*

女性為什么要冒這樣的風險?在身體上可以修整或改進的所有部位中,為什么這么大比例的整形手術都集中在乳房?隨著PIP事態的展開,有些人評論說,他們可以理解為什么乳房切除術患者可能想做這樣的手術,但理解不了那些單純為美容而做手術的女性。這似乎有點不真誠。因為如果某人在乳房被切除后想重造一個當然可以理解,那么乳房很小的人想做這樣的手術顯然并非那么難以理解。即便如此,數字仍然令人震驚。這些數字是苦惱和自我僧惡的切實證據,是一種認為身體、尤其是女性身體可以接受無窮無盡修整的文化的切實證據。隆胸手術的流行與第二波女性主義運動同步出現,這種情況讓問題更令人困惑。

 

 Many breast augmentation doctors are male, but it's too simple to suggest it's just an operation imposed on women by men. The writer Teresa Riordan, former patents columnist for the New York Times, and author of the book Inventing Beauty, analysed the beauty industry between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries, "and it was just phenomenal the different contraptions women had used to augment their breasts. I was astounded, because I thought it would be mostly men who had invented these breast augmentations, but actually it was mostly women." She uncovered a 19th-century book called The Ugly-Girl Papers, "which basically advised just rubbing your breasts very harshly with an abrasive towel to pump them up".There were suction devices, and a wire device used to create a bird cage effect around the breasts.

 很多隆胸醫生是男性,但如果說這是男性強加給女性的手術卻是過于簡單了。《發明美麗》一書的作者、《紐約時報》前專利權專欄作家特雷莎·賴爾登分析19世紀中葉至20世紀中葉的美容產業時說,“女性用來隆胸的各種發明創造太奇妙了。我感到震驚,因為我以為這些隆胸手段大都是男性發明的,但實際上卻是女性。”她發掘出一本19世紀的書,稱作《丑女文論》,“這本書大致上建議用一塊粗糙的毛巾大力地摩擦乳房,讓乳房膨脹起來。”當時還有吸壓工具,以及一種用來在乳房周圍制造鳥籠效果的金屬線裝置。

 

Virginia L Blum, English professor at the University of Kentucky, and author of Flesh Wounds, a study of cosmetic surgery, says breast implants have become normalised in the past few decades. "I was watching an actress on screen the other day, and it was clear she had breast implants, and I thought, well, actually, I see that all the time. It's unnatural-looking, but it has become natural to see it. It's part of our aesthetic landscape. I think it's now considered not extreme, but rather routine maintenance…saggy breasts are no longer considered an inevitable result of childbirth, but rather experienced as a deficit."

 肯塔基大學的英語教授、整形手術研究《肉體創傷》的作者弗吉尼亞·L.布盧姆說,隆胸在這幾十年已經正常化了。“我有天看著電視上的一個女演員,她顯然隆過胸,我想,噢,這種情況其實太多了。那看起來很不自然,但見到這種現象卻變得很自然。這是我們審美現實的一部分。我認為,隆胸如今已經不再被看成過分的做法,而是很正常的維護……下垂的乳房不再被看做生育的必然結果,而是某種缺陷。”

 

 Ninety per cent of all cosmetic surgery operations are performed on women, and Blum thinks this is because "women continue to experience their body as more mutable". I think women are raised around a fashionmagazine culture in which we realise we can work on different body parts一we can divide and conquer. Plastic surgery approaches the body in much the same way that women are trained from girlhood to approach their bodies. Male bodies are not quite as available to that model, although I think they are becoming increasingly so".

90%的整形手術都以女性為對象,布盧姆認為這是因為“女性繼續把身體當做可以變來變去的東西。我認為女性是依據時尚雜志文化被培養成人的,在這種文化中,我們意識到自己可以改造不同的身體部位—我們可以分而治之。整形手術對待身體的方式在很大程度上和女性從兒時起就被訓練如何對待自己的身體沒有多少區別。男性的身體就不太容易受制于這種模式,但我認為他們現在也越來越有這種趨勢”。

 

 Blum sees surgery as being related to consumption."You've consumed this body transformation, and you have a really great feeling, and you want to sustain that feeling. That's the thing with surgery: once you're in it, you're in it. You either have a bad result, and have to re-do the surgery because the result was insufficient, or the result was really great, and you want to reproduce that intoxicated feeling".

 布盧姆認為,手術與消費有關。“你消費這種身體轉變,然后產生很棒的感覺,你想維持那種感覺。手術的問題就在這兒:一旦做了,你就擺脫不掉。要么做壞了,要么效果不夠必須再做,要么效果特別好,你還想再次體驗那種陶醉的感覺。”

 

 The writer Jennifer Hayashi Danns, author of Stripped, also sees breast implants as an operation keenly related to materialism. Now 28, Danns worked in a lap-dancing club in her early 20s, where there was constant discussion of breast implants一it sounds like a much heightened version of everyday British pop culture, with our ubiquitous breast implant advertisements, bared breasts in newspapers and on magazine covers, women with breast implants filling the casts of reality TV shows, as well as easily available pornography. Danns felt confident about her body when she started at the club, but after eight months she had implants to increase from a C cup to a DD. She regrets the operation now, but at the time there was a feeling of "instant gratification4z" she says. "It wasn't a question of profound, long-term happiness. It felt like getting a new car, or a new bag."

《脫光》一書的作者、作家詹妮弗·藤林·丹斯也認為,植人隆胸是一種與物質主義密切相關的手術。28歲的丹斯20出頭時曾在一家脫衣舞夜總會工作,那里的人們不停地討論隆胸—聽起來就像英國日常流行文化的升級版。在這種文化里,隆胸廣告隨處可見,報紙和雜志封面上可以看到赤裸的乳房,隆過胸的女性充斥著真人秀節目,色情作品隨便就可以弄到。丹斯剛開始在夜總會工作時對自己的身體很自信,但8個月以后她做了隆胸,從C罩杯升至DD。她現在后悔做這個手術,但她說,當時感覺到一種“即刻的滿足”。她說:“不是什么長久深刻的快樂。那種感覺就像買了一部新車,或者一個新包。”

 

 The popularity of cosmetic breast implants also reflects just how utterly *in thrall we are, as a culture, too' gender distinctions. The breasts are the biggest physical sign we have of difference, and perhaps, *at base's, that's why they're so enormously popular. "It's an external symbol of a woman's gender, and we need and want that affirmation," says Biggs. He has been involved in more than 8,000 breast implant operations during the course of his career, and says he "began to realise the magnitude of the importance of the breast to a woman, and to how she feels about herself. So people can make jokes that the breast implants are done to attract men, or maybe to make other women envious. And there may be some minimal elements of truth there. But the real truth is that it helps her confirm to herself her own gender." Biggs and I *talk through" some of the complications"g he has seen during his career一of the 11 women who were implanted at the same time as Lindsey, "all were successful, but they all had troubles, and problems',一and I ask whether the experimental nature of what he was doing, in inserting sacks of silicone into women, ever worried him "Oh no," he says. "I'm not a worrier.".

   植人式隆胸的流行也反映出我們的社會是多么徹底地受制于性的區別。乳房是人類兩性差異最大的身體特征,也許,從根本上說,正因為如此隆胸才那么受歡迎。比格斯說:“這是女性的外在標志,我們需要這種確認,想要這種確認。”他在職業生涯中參與了8000多例隆胸手術,他說他“開始意識到乳房對女性的重要性,對女性自我感覺的重要性。所以人們可能開玩笑說隆胸是為吸引男人,或者讓別的女人嫉妒。這也可能有一點點真實的成分。然而,實情是,這幫助她確認自己的性別”。比格斯和我詳細討論了他在從醫過程中遇到的一些并發癥。與林賽同時期隆胸的11位女性“手術都取得成功,但也都遇到麻煩和問題”。他當時采取的手段(在女性體內植人袋裝的硅)是試驗性的,我問他這是否讓他不安,他說:“噢,沒有.我不是愛擔心的人。”

    (趙菲菲譯注自The Guardian Jan.1,2012)

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